The research laboratory focuses on water-bearing minerals that are stable at high pressures and temperatures , so called potential "transporters" of water from the surface to the depths of the planet. Their study is necessary to understand how the metabolic process takes place, in this case the water exchange, between the surface and deep mantles of the Earth. In order to create the experimental simulation of deep conditions high-pressures are created by a conical anvils made of diamond crystals. Unique hardness of diamond, coupled with a very small diameter (less than a millimeter) of operating anvil platforms, allows to compress the sample between them to pressures of millions of atmospheres.

The laboratory research areas are the following:

  •  The study of the diamond genesis processes and minerals associated with it in different geodynamic settings. Natural diamonds examination as well as that of mineral and fluid inclusions in them, the development of diamond genesis models related to the problems of the mantle mineralogy and the deep carbon cycle;
  •  The experimental simulation of the diamond genesis. Research into defining the boundary conditions of diamond crystallization and indicator properties caused by the parameters and composition of the medium;
  •  The study of the processes of diamond monocrystal growth, studying their real structure and properties. Obtaining high-quality large diamond monocrystal with desired properties to assess the prospects for their use in high-tech areas of science and technology, providing for the needs of SB RAS Institutions and NSU being in priority;
  •  The study of the carbon and carbon-containing minerals and materials formation, including nanomaterials. The study of their morphology, properties and their actual structure. Determination of stability conditions and transformation parameters of carbon and carbon-containing minerals as well as phases at high pressures and temperatures;
  •  Complex mineralogical and geochemical research of the mineral-forming processes in the lithosphere that are implemented in a wide range of conditions;
  •  Experimental modeling of mineral-forming processes using original domestic punch ultrahigh-pressure equipment developed at IGM SB RAS. Identifying patterns of change in morphology, composition, presence of defects, and other properties of minerals from the conditions of their formation.
The research results of the laboratory are the following:

  •  New data on the origin of volatiles (volcanic gases), which were emitted into the atmosphere during the eruptions of the Siberian Traps, have been obtained It was this release of gas that led to the global ecological catastrophe, associated with the extinction of life at the end of the Permian period;
  •  The complex of theoretical and experimental studies of the gold and silver mineral-forming processes has been conducted. The thermodynamic data can be used in modeling complex natural systems as well as when dealing with semiconductor material studies;
  •  The original results on the distribution of trace element and isotopic composition of inclusions in diamonds having fibrous structure from six deposits in Africa, North America and the Siberian platform have been obtained;
  •  In order to establish the conditions for the kimberlite magmas generation the experimental research in a multicomponent system using punch device of the split-sphere type has been carried out;
  •  The inclusion of metastable graphite in diamond, forsterite and orthopyroxene synthesized in silicate-carbonate- fluid and chloride-water systems at pressures of 6.3-7.5 GPa and temperatures of 1400-1600 ° C has been studied. A comparison of the inclusions form with the presence of metastable graphite in the experimental products as well as with previously obtained sequence of phases of carbon crystallization has been carried out. It has been found that protogenetic graphite inclusions in diamond are of rounded shape, which is caused by the dissolution of the newly formed graphite;
  •  The actual structure of diamond crystals grown applying the temperature gradient method using a high-pressure device of the "split-sphere" (BARS) type at 1350 ° C and at pressure of 5.7 GPa has been evaluated.
Expert: Doctor in Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor Yuri Palyanov, palyanov@igm.nsc.ru

Section of General and Regional Geology NSU
Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Geodynamics and Paleomagnetism of Central and Eastern Arctic
Laboratory of Experimental Geochemistry and Petrology of the Earth's Mantle
Laboratory of Geological Processes Correlation
Laboratory of Modelling and Numerical Solution Methods for Oil and Gas Industry
Laboratory of Seismic Imaging of the Earth
Laboratory of Ultrahigh Pressure Mineralogy